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您所在的位置:> 儀器網 > 技術中心 > 解決方案 > 納米壓痕儀技術原理及局限匯總

納米壓痕儀技術原理及局限匯總

2021年04月06日 08:59人氣:2423

   納米壓痕儀,被研究學家稱作納米壓入儀,微納米尺度薄膜材料的硬度與楊氏的模量測試都需要用該儀器進行運作。除此之外,像有機材料、無機材料、軟質材料、硬質材料也可用其進行檢測分析。
 
  納米壓痕儀的技術原理及局限性
 
  1、Oliver和Pharr:這是較為常用的一種方法。硬度值可由最大加載載荷和壓痕的殘余變形面積求得,而試驗所測得的載荷一位移曲線,可以從卸載曲線的斜率求出彈性模量。采用原始的硬度定義來進行材料的硬度和彈性模量計算而沒有考慮納米尺度上的尺寸效應是這個方法的不足之處。
 
  2、Hainsworth:由于卸載過程通常被認為是一個純彈性過程,可以根據卸載后的壓痕殘余變形求出材料的硬度,或者從卸載曲線求出材料彈性模量。這兩個方向主要適用于超硬薄膜或各向異性材料,但缺點是材料的塑性變形假設過于簡單,缺乏有力的理論支持。
 
  3、梯度隨數變化理論:材料硬度H 依賴于被測材料的深度H,有壓人壓頭之稱,并且隨著壓人深度的減小而增大,因此具有尺度效應,適用于具有塑性的晶體材料。但該方法就是無法計算材料的彈性模量。
 
  4、體積占比量:主要用來計算薄膜或基體組合體系的硬度,但局限于試驗研究方法,基體對薄膜力學性能的影響在試驗的結果上不方便排除。
 
  5、分子動力學模擬:該方法是在原子尺度上去考慮每個原子上所受到作用力、鍵合能以及晶體晶格常量,并運用牛頓運動方程來模擬原子間的相互作用結果,局限性是只適用于原子尺度。
 
  以上這五種原理是在各模式測試過程中會遇到的方法,每一種方法都體現納米壓痕儀與被測材料的關系,研究人員可根據不同的條件需求,正確選取測量方法。
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