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Agilent

要聞時事名企會展招標中標食品檢測生物醫藥能源環境

推動海洋地震勘探創新技術進步 引領海洋經濟高質量發展

2022年07月20日 14:13:20來源:儀器網作者:羊舌木

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人氣:523
  【儀器網 行業要聞能源問題始終是發展的重要問題,而油氣資源又在能源中占據了相當重要的位置,作為不可再生的重要工業原料,石油與天然氣資源一直都是各個國家的戰略性資源。海洋中的儲存的油氣資源在全球油氣資源中占34%,探明率在30%左右,并且還不斷有新的油氣儲藏被發現。
 
  我國的深水油氣資源十分豐富,近海珠江口盆地及瓊東南盆地深水區天然氣資源量合計可達2.8×10的12次方m³,勘探潛力巨大。2014年,在瓊東南盆地深水區鉆探的陵水17-2井獲重大發現;2015年在盆地中央峽谷東區、水深超1500m的超深水海域又成功發現我國首個超深水天然氣田陵水18-1,進一步展示了我國近海深水區的勘探前景。
 
  而目前,海洋地震勘探已經成為海洋地質與油氣資源調查的主要手段。近年來,海洋油氣勘探的難度不斷提高,例如深部儲層、復雜構造、鹽下儲層、火山巖屏蔽或碳酸鹽巖屏蔽下的油氣儲層地震勘探,其難度大、成像精度要求高,使得常規地震勘探技術往往難以解決出現的復雜勘探問題。但同樣,海洋勘探的商業潛力日益凸顯,海洋勘探技術也逐漸得到重視。因此,近年來國內進行了大量的海上地震勘探新技術的研究與應用,持續推動油氣的勘探開發。
 
  多種技術支撐海上油氣勘探
 
  海洋電磁法是利用靠近海底的深拖發射器從電偶極子向海水中發射電磁信號,在海底不同位置測量磁場和電場,其多用于研究油氣的電阻率異常情況,盡管分辨率不如地震勘探,但對于電阻率的靈敏度更明顯,并且對油氣資源勘探的成本較低。其中,海洋可控源電磁方法作為海洋電磁法的一個分支,具有淺部分辨率高、海上作業效果高、高阻異常識別能力強的優勢,尤其適用于油氣及天然氣水合物等高阻異常體的調查。
 
  海洋地震勘探是目前在海洋油氣勘探過程中應用最廣泛的方法之一。上下拖纜采集技術是由物探船同時拖帶垂向上不同深度的兩條拖纜進行數據采集,是隨物探裝備技術的進步,特別是拖纜橫向控制技術的突破而發展起來的一種地震勘探方法。上下拖纜采集技術更有利于中深層成像,上下纜資料信噪比更高,成果剖面中基底和凹陷內幕反射結構更加清楚合理。
 
  環形激發技術采集是全方位角地震信息,能夠更全面地反映地下構造,更有利于壓制噪音和衰減多次波,利用這種技術可以采集到幾乎達到全方位角的近偏移距資料,這時即使采用多船寬方位角觀測系統也無法完成的。通過這種方法還能夠在方位角內對數據進行多種選取,將數據體劃分到不同的方位角度域內,建立各向異性速度模型,分析裂縫發育程度和走向,從而指導油氣田開發。
 
  目前三維地震是海洋油氣勘探的主要手段。地震勘探的早期階段受成本和計算量的限制,通常采用二維地震探測,即在一條地震測線上放炮并接收地震波,經計算機處理后得到測線下邊的地質圖像剖面。三維地震探測是利用人工震源激發的地震波在地下巖層中傳播的路徑、時間和波場,探測地下巖層的埋藏深度、形狀和速度結構等幾何和物理屬性,認識地下地質構造,進而發現隱伏斷裂、特殊地質構造如發震斷裂和孕震構造等地下結構的技術。三維地震探測技術是一項集物理學、地震學、數學、計算機科學和工程技術等為一體的綜合性應用技術,它能夠使地下目標的圖像更加清晰、位置預測更加可靠,是實現“地下清楚”目標的必經之路。
 
  海上油氣勘探技術難在哪?
 
  盡管目前已有多種海上油氣勘探技術,但海上勘探仍然面臨著許多問題。在經濟方面,相對于陸地或者淺水,深水油氣勘探開發成本較高,是一種高投入、高風險的投資,能否具有“經濟性”是影響深水油氣勘探中長期發展的重要因素。
 
  在技術方面,我國海洋油氣勘探普遍存在深海石油勘探研工作平臺缺乏,深海浮式生產裝置技術使用較少,深海油氣田的水下生產系統技術都較為缺乏。并且由于我國海洋環境條件復雜,像是在南海夏天容易發生強熱帶風暴天氣,冬季渤海容易形成海冰等,這都給海上油氣開發帶來了挑戰,再加上海底油氣輸送管道要求滿足深水海底為高靜壓和低溫環境,因此對勘探開發相關技術組合和材料提出更高要求。
 
  在安全方面也十分關鍵。海上勘探不僅需要考慮到潮汐、風浪、海流、水深等自然地理環境影響,并且還要考慮到地基泥層沖刷、設備材料老化、構件缺陷等各種風險因素的影響。并且當遇上臺風天氣時,海況會變得尤為惡劣,此時不但采集的質量會變得很差,而且臺風會對整個采集隊伍人員的生命安全都產生極大的威脅。
 
  全力推進海洋勘探技術開發
 
  2021年11月,國家發改委、財政部、自然資源部印發《推進資源型地區高質量發展“十四五”實施方案》提出,要依據資源稟賦、開發利用等情況,布局一批能源資源基地和國家規劃礦區,打造戰略性礦產資源穩定供應的核心區。加大石油、天然氣等戰略性礦產資源勘查,做好重要礦產資源戰略接續。
 
  要端牢能源的飯碗、保障國家能源安全,就必須加快實現科技自立自強,不斷強化海洋油氣勘探開發原始創新能力和持續技術積累,加快打破亦步亦趨的“路徑依賴”,把握顛覆性創新的技術變軌和產業重構機遇,以“非對稱”的策略加快在前沿領域“換道超車”,在危機中育先機、于變局中開新局,掌握建設科技強國、海洋強國、能源強國的競爭和發展主動權。
 
  擁有我國自主知識產權的海亮”拖纜采集裝備“海途”拖纜綜合導航系統打破作業深度、道間距等技術限制,零故障完成海上三維地震采集作業,靈敏度、穩定性和一致性優于國外主流設備,地震資料品質符合行業標準,填補了國內裝備技術空白,標志著我國自主研發海洋地震拖纜采集裝備技術達到國際先進水平。
 
  “十三五”期間,中國海油在深水深層、高溫高壓等領域不斷開展地質認識創新和科研攻關,先后形成了“南海高溫高壓鉆完井關鍵技術及工業化應用”“渤海灣盆地深層大型整裝凝析氣田勘探理論技術與重大發現”等多個技術體系,為我國油氣增儲上產提供有力保障。
 
  近日,由我國研發的海上地震勘探震源控制系統——“海源”氣槍震源控制系統在天津濱海新區中海油服產業園完成最終調試工作,即將列裝12纜深水物探船海洋石油720并投入生產示范應用。“海源”氣槍震源控制系統不但能夠實現高精度的氣槍震源同步控制,為高質量的地震勘探作業提供高度穩定的震源信號,還可以完成多種延遲氣槍震源控制方式,為海上地震勘探作業中更高難度的隨機震源和立體震源提供更簡易的實現方式從而為多船、寬頻等海上油氣勘探新方法、新技術提供有效的震源保障,為提升我國海洋油氣勘探技術核心競爭力貢獻價值。該系統調試成功,標志著我國海洋油氣地震勘探拖纜成套裝備又一核心關鍵技術取得重大突破。
 
  要想做好海上油氣勘探工作,不僅需要廣大的地質研究人員付出艱辛的勞動,并且還需要各個領域的高科技加持。盡管我國海洋油氣勘探和開采技術與世界先進水平還有一段很長的路要走,尤其是在海洋深水油氣開采和一些非常規技術開采上,但原創技術攻關是一場永無止境的接力賽,我們要持之以恒加強基礎研究,落實基礎研究十年規劃,不斷提高原始創新能力,實現對產業關鍵技術的深耕探索和核心控制形成應用需求牽引源頭創新、基礎研究支撐技術突破的良性循環。
 
  (資料參考來源:央視新聞、中國海油、中國能源報、科普中國、科技日報、百科、知網等)
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