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Agilent

要聞時事名企會展招標中標食品檢測生物醫藥能源環境

特定區域大氣微塑料污染情況如何? 或許可以看看蜘蛛網

2022年06月28日 15:27:39來源:儀器網作者:吳吳吳

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人氣:1048
  【儀器網 能源環境塑料,被譽為二十世紀最偉大的發明之一,因其價格低廉、經久耐用和超長的延展性被廣泛應用于人類日常生活的各個方面。然而,因其難以在自然環境下降解和較低的回收率,塑料污染很成了人類無法忽視的問題。
 
  2004年,英國普利茅斯大學的湯普森等人將粒徑小于5mm的塑料命名為“微塑料”(Microplastics),憑借著相對較小的尺寸和低密度,微塑料幾乎“侵占”了從陸地到海洋的每一個角落,當然它也普遍存在于大氣之中。
 
城市交通
 
  6月5日,來自新西蘭坎特伯雷大學的亞歷克斯·阿維斯等人在《冰凍圈》(The Cryosphere)雜志上發表論文,論文稱研究人員首次在南極洲的新鮮降雪中發現了微塑料的“蹤跡”,該研究證明微塑料已經滲透進了南極的空氣中。
 
  大氣中微塑料的主要來源于合成橡膠輪胎、合成紡織品和城市灰塵等,汽車每一次剎車時都會與地面摩擦出大量的塑料微粒飄散在空中。有研究發現,碎片狀和纖維樁的塑料微粒因為受到了較大的空氣拖曳力,能夠在大氣中停留很長一段時間,“搭乘”空氣“旅行”的距離能超過1千公里。說不定亞歷克斯等人在南極采集到的雪樣中,就有阿根廷烏斯懷亞(烏斯懷亞,“世界盡頭”,距離南極僅800公里)的司機踩剎車時產生的微塑料。
 
  由于尚未開發出成熟的大氣中微塑料的檢測技術,學界關于大氣中微塑料對氣候的影響和大氣中微塑料的量存的研究相對較少。
 
  2021年,新西蘭坎特伯雷大學的勞拉·雷維爾等人就大氣中微塑料對全球氣候的影響進行了首次研究計算,研究人員建立的模型中發現,微塑料、礦物粉塵和其他大氣懸浮物組成的大氣氣溶膠能夠散射或吸收太陽和地球的輻射,對地表氣候產生或正或負的冷卻影響(ERF),這與顆粒的大小、形狀、組成以及大氣和地表條件有關。
 
  近日,德國奧爾登堡卡爾·馮·奧西茨基大學麗貝卡·蘇斯穆特等人在《總體環境科學》雜志上發表了一篇研究論文,該項研究首次探討了利用蜘蛛網檢測大氣中微塑料污染程度的可行性。
 
  研究人員檢測了采集到的蜘蛛網中的微塑料含量后發現,所有采集到的蜘蛛網上都有微塑料的痕跡,微塑料的重量能夠占到整個蜘蛛網重量的10%。其中,大約有90%的微塑料是用于紡織物、飲料瓶相關的PET塑料。
 
  如果用蜘蛛網檢測特定區域大氣中微塑料污染情況可行,那么從理論上來說,在城市交通發達的地區,蜘蛛網中輪胎磨損脫落顆粒(TWP)的含量也就相對較多。因此,該項數據除了可以判斷改地區污染程度外,還可判斷該地區的城市交通發展程度?;蛟S這就是“禍兮福所倚”,真希望地球沒這個“福氣”。
(本文來源:儀器網,轉載請注明出處
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時間:2022.09.15~2022.09.17 地點:廣州·廣交會展館C區


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