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Agilent

要聞時事名企會展招標中標食品檢測生物醫藥能源環境

微生物隊立大功:“超級蠕蟲”變身“塑料食客”

2022年06月28日 15:22:36來源:儀器網作者:吳吳吳

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人氣:1001
  【儀器網 能源環境】 1909年,美籍比利時化學家列奧·亨德里克·貝克蘭合成了人類歷史上第一種完全由人工合成的塑料——酚醛塑料。在此后的一百多年里,塑料成了上至航空航天,下至農業地礦的必備材料之一。
 
  從20世紀50年代以來,人類大約生產了83億噸塑料制品,其中有60%被填埋、焚燒或直接倒江河湖海,只有10%左右的塑料得到回收利用。2022年6月,經合組織(OECD)發出警告稱,如果不采取任何措施,2060年全世界的塑料產量將由2019年的4.6億噸上升到12.31噸,塑料垃圾也將超兩倍增長,由3.53億噸增至10.14億噸。
 
地球正面臨嚴重的塑料污染
 
  聚苯乙烯(PS)是一種由苯乙烯聚合的無色透明的熱塑性塑料,它具有電絕緣性能好、易著色、加工流動性好、剛性好及耐化學腐蝕性好等特點,被廣泛用于制造各種消費品,是世界四大通用塑料之一。
 
  與此同時,PS塑料質量小、殘余價值低、不容易循環再生等缺點也使得不能得到它的回收和利用。
 
  近日,澳大利亞昆士蘭大學的研究人員在《微生物基因組學》(Microbial Genomics)上發表了一篇研究成果,稱研究人員發現常見的大麥蟲(Zophobas morio,又叫“超級蠕蟲”)能夠消化PS塑料,這得益于其腸道中的一種細菌酶,這種酶可能是大規?;厥誔S塑料的關鍵。
 
  實驗中,研究人員采用給一組大麥蟲喂食PS泡沫、一組喂食麩皮、一組禁食或只喂極少量食物的策略,進行的為期三周的實驗。實驗顯示,進食PS塑料的大麥蟲體重有所增加,這表明大麥蟲能夠通過所進食的PS塑料獲得生存所需的能量。
 
  早在2015年,北京航空航天大學楊軍研究組和美國斯坦福大學吳唯民高級研究員、深圳華大基因公司趙姣博士等,在《環境科學與技術》(Environmental Science and Technology)上發表了內容黃粉蟲(面包蟲)能夠嚙食降解ps,并同化為為蟲體脂肪的論文。
 
  上文提到的研究與楊軍等人的研究有著異曲同工之妙,同時,大麥蟲的長度是黃粉蟲的數倍,這也就意味著大麥蟲是更為高效的“塑料食客”。
 
  在經過初步驗證大麥蟲能夠依靠進食PS飼料存活后,研究人員利用元基因組學技術找到了幾種能夠降解聚苯乙烯和苯乙烯的編碼酶,接下來他們將圍繞著識別和人工設計出與PS塑料降解相關的酶展開。
 
  在思路上,小編猜測研究人員會按照計算機學習算法預測酶的突變的方式來對酶進行設計,因為之前已經有過相對成功的先例了。
 
  今年4月,美國德克薩斯大學奧斯汀分校的研究人員就利用計算機學習算法預測PET降解酶(PETase)的突變從而提高了其活性,設計出的FAST-PETase擁有在24小時內完全降解對苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET塑料)的能力,并且在技術層面實現了PET塑料的“回收閉環”。(點擊查看相關新聞
 
  從PET塑料降解酶的設計,到PS塑料降解酶的有待挖掘,相信之后涌現出的酶會越來越多,生態環境的壓力也會得到減輕。
(本文來源:儀器網,轉載請注明出處
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第7屆廣州國際生物技術大會暨展覽會
第7屆廣州國際生物技術大會暨展覽會

時間:2022.09.15~2022.09.17 地點:廣州·廣交會展館C區


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