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Agilent

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科學家首次在南極降雪中發現微塑料 新污染物防治迫在眉睫

2022年06月24日 17:02:48來源:儀器網作者:吳吳吳

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  【儀器網 能源環境】 “微塑料”這一概念首次被提出是在2004年,英國普利茅斯大學的湯普森等人在《科學》發表了關于海水水體和沉積物中的塑料碎片的論文,并把粒徑<5mm的塑料顆粒命名為微塑料(Microplastics)。
 
  此后,微塑料也在越來越多的環境中被發現。2018年,中國科學院深??茖W與工程研究所研究員彭曉彤團隊在全球海洋的最深區域馬里亞納海溝底層海水和沉積物中發現了較高含量的微塑料;2020年,英國普利茅斯大學的伊莫金·納珀團隊首次在世界之巔珠穆朗瑪峰上發現微塑料……
 
  近年來的科學研究顯示,從馬里亞納海溝到珠穆朗瑪峰,微塑料幾乎已經無處不在。那么,作為全球最偏遠地區之一的南極能夠“幸免”嗎?答案是,不能。
 
  First evidence of microplastics in Antarctic snow
 
  近日,新西蘭坎特伯雷大學的Alex R. Aves等人在《The Cryosphere》(冰凍圈)雜志上發表了一篇名為《First evidence of microplastics in Antarctic snow》(南極雪中微塑料的第一個證據)的論文,論文稱研究人員首次在南極洲的新鮮降雪中發現了微塑料的“蹤跡”,該研究證明微塑料已經滲透進了南極的空氣中。
 
  研究人員分別從南極洲羅斯島的19個不同地點收集雪樣,經過研究后他們發現采集到的每個樣本中都含有不同濃度塑料微粒。
 
  研究人員利用體視顯微鏡和顯微傅里葉變換紅外光譜顯微鏡分析雪樣,確定了雪樣中塑料微粒的大小、顏色、形狀等其他信息。實驗中研究人員發現了109顆塑料微粒,它們分屬于13種不同類型的聚合物,其中聚對苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)在79%的樣品中被發現,是最常檢測到的聚合物類型。
 
  微塑料的來源有兩種,一是添加在洗面奶、牙膏等產品中的初生微塑料,二是塑料經過碎裂、沖刷、降解等一系列作用下形成的次生微塑料。據研究人員分析,南極洲的微塑料可能來自當地來源和遠距離遷移。微塑料向南極環境的直接來源可能是研究站塑料設備的碎片,也包括基地工作人員、研究人員穿的衣服和管理不善的廢物;遠距離遷移是指微塑料可能是通過洋流的遠距離遷移進入南極環境,海洋到大氣的交換以及短程和遠程大氣遷移。
 
  微塑料具有粒徑小、遷移性強、比表面積大、易于富集微生物、重金屬和持久性有機污染物等特點。之前的研究表明,生物體暴露于微塑料會導致生長受限,對繁殖產生負面影響和生物功能受損,增加對生態系統的壓力。也會使細菌、微藻和無脊椎動物的表皮細胞群落可以在環境塑料顆粒上形成,入侵物種有可能因此進入南極地區。
 
  南極雪中的塑料微粒含量代表著南極被塑料污染的程度,該項研究表明,即使是世界上最為偏遠的地區,也依然逃不過塑料污染的“侵襲”。這也表明,微塑料等新污染物的治理已經迫在眉睫。
 
  參考資料:Aves, A. R., Revell, L. E., Gaw, S., Ruffell, H., Schuddeboom, A., Wotherspoon, N. E., LaRue, M., and McDonald, A. J.: First evidence of microplastics in Antarctic snow, The Cryosphere, 16, 2127–2145, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-2127-2022, 2022.
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