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新西蘭計劃征收“牛羊打嗝費” 背后的原因令全球變“暖”

2022年06月24日 17:00:58來源:儀器網作者:吳吳吳

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人氣:774
  【儀器網 能源環境】 近日,新西蘭公布的一項計劃草案表示,新西蘭將從2025年起將農業正式納入碳排放權交易體系,向農民征收牛羊等反芻動物排放溫室氣體的費用,即“牛羊打嗝費”,此草案將使新西蘭成為世界上第一個讓農民為牲畜排放物付費的國家。
 
  碳排放權交易體系是指在減少全球溫室氣體排放的背景下,政府或其他權威機構規定的各領域市場參與者的碳排放限額,超出限額部分市場參與者需要購買碳排放權,碳排放權也可在在自身碳排放量低于限額時出售。
 
  如果將全球性的趨勢標簽化,那么“減碳”則是其中不可忽視的部分,開頭所提到的新西蘭征收“牛羊打嗝費”就是這一標簽下的重要政策。那么,為什么是牛羊?為什么是新西蘭呢?
 
  為什么是牛羊?
 
  牛和羊都是典型的反芻動物,它們有瘤胃、瓣胃、網胃和皺胃四個胃,其中瘤胃在幫助反芻動物消化各種粗飼料時,會產生并以打嗝等形式排出溫室氣體——甲烷。據了解,牛羊等反芻動物每吃1公斤飼料會平均產生21-22克的甲烷,一頭奶牛每年產生的甲烷98公斤。
 
  甲烷,是僅次于二氧化碳的第二大人為制造溫室氣體,其體量占到了全球溫室氣體排放量的20%。同時,它捕捉大氣中熱量的能力(全球增溫潛勢,GWP)是二氧化碳的80多倍,根據CMI(Global Methane Initiative,全球碳排放行動)的預測數據,2020年全球人為甲烷排放量中有27%是牛羊等反芻動物的排放造成的。
 
  牛羊打嗝對全球變暖有著重要影響,特別是近現代以來畜牧業開始規?;B殖后,牛羊等反芻動物數量的激增在一定程度上加劇了全球氣候變暖。
 
  為什么是新西蘭?
 
  從新西蘭的產業結構看,作為一個地廣人稀的國家,農業是新西蘭的一個重要產業,這其中畜牧業占據了主要地位,據了解,新西蘭的500萬人口擁有近1000萬頭牛和2600萬頭羊,平均每人擁有2頭牛、5.6頭羊。在新西蘭,農業部門的排放量占據了其溫室氣體排放量的近一半(48%),比例高位居全球之首,而農業排放中大部分都是反芻動物甲烷排放。
 
  從新西蘭的碳排放權交易市場的現狀看,新西蘭的有碳排放交易體系啟動于2008年,是目前大洋洲唯一的強制性碳排放權交易市場,碳排放權交易體系覆蓋行業范圍也相對較廣,包括電力、工業、國內航空、交通、建筑、林業等,碳排放權交易體系的歷史相對悠久。但作為全國排碳大頭的農業卻沒有被納入新西蘭的碳排放權交易體系,只需要報告的排放數據,新西蘭也因此受到了世界范圍內的壓力。
 
  從新西蘭的應對政策上來看,2019年,新西蘭通過了《2019年氣候變化應對(零碳)修正案》(Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Act 2019),改修正案授權了政府采取行動推進碳中和目標。2021年聯合國氣候變化大會之前,新西蘭也做出了到2030年溫室氣體與2005年相比減少41%的承諾。
 
  在這樣內外因素的推動下,新西蘭成為了收取“牛羊打嗝費”的先行者。據了解,新西蘭將逐步推行有關“牛羊打嗝費”的草案,碳排放的免費額度將設定在一個較高的起點,如農民支付5%的碳排放成本,其余的95%由政府承擔,之后再逐年降低。
 
  目前,我國的農業碳排放權交易市場尚未啟動,國家農業主管部門主要是參與和支持農業碳減排項目方法學的研究,新西蘭“牛羊打嗝費”草案的提出和實施,將為我國綠色農業溫室氣體排放的研發和管理提供參考借鑒。
(本文來源:儀器網,轉載請注明出處
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