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科學家利用果蠅模型揭示微塑料對人體健康的潛在風險

2022年06月24日 16:54:53來源:儀器網作者:吳吳吳

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  【儀器網 能源環境】 2004年,英國普利茅斯大學的Thompson R C等人正式在學術界提出了“微塑料”這個概念,他們將粒徑小于5mm的塑料微粒命名為“微塑料(Microplastics)”。
 
  微塑料的來源有兩種,一是添加在洗面奶、牙膏等產品中的初生微塑料,二是塑料經過碎裂、沖刷、降解等一系列作用下形成的次生微塑料。微塑料具有粒徑小、遷移性強、比表面積大、易于富集微生物、重金屬和持久性有機污染物等特點。
 
海洋中的塑料垃圾
 
  從理論上來說,只要微塑料的尺寸夠小,那么它就能夠進入生物體的器官、組織甚至細胞之中,而且因為其本身能夠富集有害物質的特性,這些物質進入生物體內后也會對健康造成一定威脅。
 
  隨著“微塑料”等相關研究的火熱,學術界的諸多研究都證實了微塑料會對海洋生物的消化系統、呼吸系統、生殖系統等產生影響,如微塑料會降低斑馬魚腸道的生物多樣性、導致青鳉魚腮病變、對太平洋牡蠣的生殖產生干擾等。不僅如此,微塑料還海洋生物的攝食、運動等行為產生影響。
 
  在對人體的影響方面,雖然微塑料相繼在人體中被發現,但學術界還沒有足夠的證據可以證明微塑料會對人體健康產生影響。近日,巴塞羅那自治大學的相關團隊發表在《環境科學:納米》雜志上的研究可能尋找到了人體攝入微塑料潛在危險的新線索。
 
  2000年,科學家對腹黑果蠅進行基因測序后發現,果蠅的基因組與人類的基因組序列的同源性高達60%,且與人類共享75%的致病基因。正因為如此,與人類相比染色體相對簡單的果蠅成為了人類遺傳學和疾病機制探索的重要實驗對象。
 
  據了解,該研究正是用腹黑果蠅進行的研究,研究人員利用果蠅開發了微塑料腸道追蹤技術,解決了微塑料攝入定量的難題,并通過通過電子顯微鏡還原了不同大小的微塑料碎片從環境到生物體內部的過程,跟蹤了微塑料從被攝入直至到達果蠅幼蟲血淋巴的路徑(相當于人類血液),并得出了影像報告。
 
  科學家從得出的“影像報告”發現了微塑料具有穿過腸道屏障并進入血淋巴的能力,并觀察到了中觀察到了微塑料在通過腸道的過程中與細胞和腸道中微生物的互動行為。在對人體健康的影響方面,該研究結果顯示,進入生物體的微塑料引發了一些分子變化,并參與到了一般應激反應的基因表達中。
 
  除此之外,該研究還表明微塑料在果蠅的“血液循環”中改變了與氧化損傷和DNA損傷有關的基因表達,且能夠導致腸道屏障的物理損傷。研究人員還表示,研究中使用微塑料顆粒的大小與研究中誘發反應的強度呈負相關。
 
  除了揭示微塑料對于人體的潛在危險,該研究還為這項課題賦予了更多的現實意義,并吸引更多學者參與到微塑料人體健康風險的研究中。
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