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現代技術為老城區“美顏” 建筑保護并不簡單

2021年12月17日 13:17:06來源:儀器網

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  【儀器網 材料化工】時間見證了時代的發展,見證了社會的進步,與此同時也給我們留下了豐富的文化寶藏,這些寶藏可能是深埋在土地中的文物,也可能是在城市某個角落孕育了幾代人的老房古街。盡管如今,經濟的發展已經在城市里樹立起一座座鋼筋水泥鑄就的高樓,但是不少城市卻依舊保留著一些充滿時代氣息的歷史古街,而這些古街在繼續孕育著新一代人的同時,也作為一種特殊的遺址建筑或者文化群落,被保護起來。
 
  不過事實上,這種老城區古建筑的保護工作并不容易,一方面,由于大部分建筑還是處于使用狀態,因此實際上一直是在產生損耗的,這也導致了大部分古建筑或多或少需要進行一些維護以及修理工作;另一方面,古建筑群往往具備自己的時代特色以及區域風格,在維護這些建筑的時候也需要依據原本的風格來進行修復,避免修成“仿古”建筑,同時,如果需要在區域內新建新的建筑,還要保證新建筑能夠融入到原本的建筑風格中,這并非一件易事。因此如何延續這些特殊的文化遺產,讓古建筑能夠在時代發展中生生不息,也成為了對規劃師、建筑師、科研學者的一個考驗。
 
  不同于傳統的文物保護,從老城區古建筑到古街整體的保護工作不單單停留在“修”,還需要“改”,改的目的是為了讓其更好的適應現在的環境,但是怎么“治”,怎么“修”,怎么“改”卻又十分復雜。這個過程常常就需要大量的現代技術來幫助了。
 
  首先我們需要對建筑本身的材質以及可能存在的問題進行判斷與篩查。由于建筑年代久遠,因此墻面脫落或者磚瓦損壞是非常常見的情況,接觸光譜、色譜、質譜等常用實驗室分析儀器,解析脫落建筑材料的成分,可以幫助判斷判斷建筑的歷史以及判斷修復需要用到的耗材。而針對建筑內部細節,例如梁和樁的損壞情況,墻面是否存在滲水的可能,則可以通過超聲波或者x射線類的儀器,進行初步分析,避免在初期就破壞建筑框架。
 
  其次便是對建筑的修改。這個修改并不是指破壞建筑的原有結構,而是根據實際情況對建筑的安全性以及實用性進行完善。例如屋面、墻體保溫構造層的重新設計,內部防水材料的植入,盡可能在不破壞粉墻黛瓦的那種古色古香的同時,將現代建筑所具備的保溫和耐潮特性融入到這些富有年代感的建筑中。
 
  最后便是對這個區域的規劃。每個城市的建設都會有時代發展帶來的地區特色,這種特色在古城古街會特別明顯,就好像江南一帶的委婉,首都圈一帶的大氣,這種特色不能在后期的維護工作中被遺失或者趨同化,因此需要從整體來切入。隨著無人機的技術的出現,有關部門可以從不同角度觀察古城古街,發現一個區域的不同特色以及整體的美感,這為規劃提供了非??煽康囊罁?。
 
  從歷史地域到人文特色,無數的信息編織成了一座城市的名片,而老城古街古建筑,就像是名片上的一張照片,現代技術為老城區“美顏”其實是在守護一座城市特有的文化底蘊。
(本文來源:儀器網,轉載請注明出處
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