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Agilent

要聞時事名企會展招標中標食品檢測生物醫藥能源環境

活性“炭” 背后的改變與被改變

2021年12月16日 09:03:36來源:儀器網

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  【儀器網 材料化工】活性炭是一種經過特殊處理后得到的粉狀或粒狀多孔無定形炭。這種炭由于微孔結構發達,比表面積和吸附活性大,因此被廣泛地運用在污水處理、電極制造、煙氣治理等領域,是現代社會中非常重要的一種材料。
 
 
  許多人認識活性炭都是在產品介紹或是相關的科普欄目中,因此會認為其是一種比較“高級”的材料,事實上,活性炭比我們想的要“親民”許多,是一種生活和生產中經常能夠遇到的典型碳材料。這種材料不但好用而且便宜,甚至本身和資源循環利用有非常大的聯系。目前,活性炭的主要采用生物質熱解制備,原材料可以是椰殼、核桃殼、松子殼等果殼,或是秸稈、木屑、污泥、廢棄蔬菜等廢棄物。不過,這并不意味著活性炭的制備過程是環保的。事實上生物質熱解的過程伴隨著比較高的能源消耗,而這個能耗和碳排放有著直接的聯系,因此,盡管從資源利用的角度,制備活性炭是非常理想的處理方法之一,但是從環保以及目前的發展狀況來看,活性炭產業其實面臨著挑戰以及發展約束。
 
  不過最近,這種資源利用與環境保護之間的矛盾似乎出現了突破口。在《生物資源技術》刊物上,近期發布了一項科研成果,內容大致為合肥工業大學機械工程學院馬培勇副教授研究團隊,在生物質熱解制備碳材料方面取得了新的進展,研究出了能夠在更低能耗下實現生物質制炭的方法。關于這種方法的具體內容,大家可以去查閱一下報告原文或者去看一下針對馬培勇教授的采訪,我想和大家討論的,是活性“炭”本身。
 
  前文我們提到過,活性炭其實是一種已經非常普及的碳材料,那么為什么還有那么多學者熱衷于尋求活性炭本身或者是制備活性炭方法上的突破呢?這和不同活性炭的特殊功能有著密切聯系。例如椰子殼制備的活性炭能夠用于蔗糖溶液脫色,相較于二氧化硫脫色更加環保也更加經濟;而通過污泥生產活性炭是非常優秀的填充劑和著色料,能夠在建材和生產等領域發揮重要作用;而秸稈制備的活性炭則可以用于廢水處理中的銅離子收集……而不同材料制備活性炭的過程以及能耗也不同,即便采用新方法,也只能在部分的原材料中使用。因此針對不同的原材料,研究不同的方法,并且保證制備結果能夠滿足其實際應用的需求就是一件復雜的事。而這些事卻潛移默化地關系著發展甚至聯系著民生。
 
  活性炭改變我們的生活的同時,它也不斷地面對著改變,而這個改變的過程實際上是記錄發展,記錄著越來越好的明天的過程。
(本文來源:儀器網,轉載請注明出處
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第7屆廣州國際生物技術大會暨展覽會

時間:2022.09.15~2022.09.17 地點:廣州·廣交會展館C區


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