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輻射制冷使無能耗散熱成為可能 新材料助力戶外設備熱管理

2021年11月30日 17:04:45來源:儀器網作者:吳吳吳

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人氣:1287
  【儀器網 材料化工】 進入新世紀,各類小型中型大型機器設備365天一刻不停地運轉,社會經濟得到了前所未有的發展,而在生產高效的背后則是“善后”技術的低效,機器設備產生的熱量在大氣中“自由”地進行著熱傳遞,進一步加劇了溫室效應。
 
  說起“熱傳遞”,“熱輻射”作為熱傳遞的三種方式之一,近年來受到了越來越多的關注,“輻射制冷” 是一種被動冷卻技術,憑借著可在無任何能耗的情況下降熱量散發到太空而成為熱門研究課題。
 
  外太空是地球的理想熱沉 能夠接收來自地球的熱量
 
  根據經典熱輻射理論,一切溫度高于絕對零度(-273.15℃)的物體都會以電磁波的形式向外發射能量。熱輻射可以將熱能以光速穿過真空,從一個物體傳到另一個物體,太陽傳遞給地球的熱能就是以熱輻射經過宇宙而來的,所以將地球熱量通過熱輻射“發射”到外太空是理論上可行的。
 
  太陽的溫度一般被認為是6000K(開爾文,溫度單位),地球的溫度是230K到300K,而外太空的溫度為3K(-270℃,接近絕對零度),是一個持續穩定的低溫端。外太空是地球的理想熱沉,通過輻射制冷,地球上的物體可實現與外太空直接換熱。
 
  其實輻射制冷也普遍存在于大自然中,露珠的形成就是自然的輻射制冷的結果。夜晚近地空氣因長波輻射冷卻到露點以下,其中所含的水汽在地面或近地物體上結成露珠,然而輻射制冷現象一般只在夜晚出現,這也就是為什么露珠出現的時間總在傍晚和清晨。
 
  此前,已有科學家在夜間輻射制冷發電方面有了較大的突破,范鈴羚團隊利用輻射制冷研制出熱電發生系統,轉換效率為5%-8%,能夠實現每平米超過 2W 乃至 3W 左右的功率密度,相比于此前背報道的相同原理的研究,其結果高出兩個數量級,足以為一些 LED 照明器件、模塊化傳感器等持續供電。
 
  近日,上海交通大學電氣材料與絕緣研究中心教授黃興溢與該校密西根學院教授鮑華基于輻射制冷技術,開發出一種具有高導熱率的輻射制冷絕緣材料。據了解該材料的陽光反射率高達98%,能夠打破時間限制實現全天輻射制冷,材料具備的高導熱特性可用于戶外機械設備的高效熱管理,能夠有效降低機械設備的溫度。
 
  與傳統制冷技術相比 高導熱率的輻射制冷絕緣材料的優勢
 
  傳統的制冷技術是以蒸汽壓縮制冷技術為主,工作氣體主要有氨、二氧化碳和氟利昂等輕烴鹵代物,氣體制冷劑泄露造成的臭氧破壞、強溫室氣體直接排放使地球溫度進一步升高,同時又加劇了制冷需求,如此形成一種惡性循環。
 
  與傳統制冷技術相比,輻射制冷技術運用了自身材料的熱輻射特性,本身不需要任何能量輸入,是一種無耗能、無污染的理想制冷技術。且黃興溢團隊研發的輻射制冷絕緣材料可實現全天輻射制冷,因此這一技術有望取代或補充傳統制冷技術。
 
  設施、裝備在工作時自身的熱量是制冷技術研發和應用中繞不開的“大山”,研究人員設計的一種基于填充有聚合物基體的二維六方氮化硼(h-BN)介電納米板的可擴展光子膜,將獨特的2D形狀與高折射率相結合,具有超高的后向光散射效率,使光子膜與傳統基體相比同時具有高太陽反射率(98%)和低熱阻,散熱能力更強。
 
  據介紹,該材料制備工藝簡單,無需開發新的工業化設備,可在原有設備的實現大規模生產,目前該團隊已制備出數米長的材料。在應用方面,該材料除了可用于冷鏈物流、會展中心等傳統制冷場景,還可用于變壓器、5G基站等戶外電力設施的熱管理,甚至航天器的熱控薄膜也在其應用范圍之內。
 
  作為一項綠色技術,制冷輻射不需要消耗能源,也不會排放溫室氣體造成環境負擔,對我國的生態文明建設具有重要意義。黃興溢團隊設計、制備出的高導熱率的輻射制冷絕緣材料,打破了傳統輻射制冷材料陽光反射率和導熱率的制約,進一步拓展了輻射制冷材料的應用場景,為進一步推動輻射制冷技術在戶外電力設備、電子器件中的熱管理應用做出了開創性貢獻。
 
  后記:在后續應用場景的拓展上,材料的美學問題或許會被輻射制冷材料的研究團隊提上日程,讓材料在上色后具有純白色材料一樣的制冷效果,是輻射制冷材料產業化開發的需要解決的問題。
(本文來源:儀器網,轉載請注明出處
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