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Agilent

要聞時事名企會展招標中標食品檢測生物醫藥能源環境

新結構帶來新突破 新技術讓電池更耐寒

2021年11月11日 10:57:35來源:儀器網作者:小王

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人氣:1384
  【儀器網 材料化工】相信不少人會有這么一種感覺,手機一到冬天電似乎就開始變得不耐用了,但通過相關的軟件檢測有發現電池本身并沒有損壞。事實上,產生這種情況的原因是因為鋰電池本身。
 
 
  如今電池已經成為了我們生活中非常重要的一種儲能形式,而鋰電池作為其中儲能效果好、充放電性能穩定的一類電池,更是被廣泛運用在手機、平板電腦等電子產業,電動車、電動汽車等電驅交通工具上。但是即便如此,鋰電池卻依舊有一個嚴重的問題,那便是低溫耐受性差。
 
  鋰電池主要由正負極、電解液、隔膜、外層組成,其中正極為鈷酸鋰,負極為石墨。而當我們給鋰電池充電的時候,電池正極的鋰離子會脫出通過電解液向負極移動,從而儲存電量;反之,使用的過程中鋰離子會從石墨層返回到電源正極,并釋放出儲存的電量。而這整個過程和電解液都有著密切的聯系。而當鋰電池處于低溫環境時,電解液的粘度增大,鋰離子在石墨和鈷酸鋰中的擴散系數減小,這使得鋰離子遷移的過程變得艱難,電池在充電過程中,所能存儲的電量也就因此減少,也便變得不耐用了。
 
  當然,隨著如今電池越做越大,這種因為溫度產生的電量影響,對于手機等日用電子產品的影響,其實不會特別明顯,大部分時候可以通過充電寶來獲得解決。但是對于電驅動的交通工具就不一樣了。
 
  事實上,從電動汽車普及開來之后,冬季的耐用問題就一直飽受詬病。無論是續航里程變短,還是充電效率變低,對于一個日常的交通載具來說,都是非常嚴重的問題。而目前針對這種問題,大部分廠家依舊采用油電混動的思路來應對冬季電動汽車的行駛難題。不過顯然這不是長期發展的最佳方法。
 
  而就在最近,這個問題似乎可以得到解決,一種新的鋰電池結構有可能能從原理上解決鋰電池不耐低溫的問題。
 
  美國國家發明家科學院院士王朝陽團隊,從電池工作過程作為切入,通過在電池內加入一片10微米厚度的鎳箔作為發熱體,利用電池自帶的能量實現隨意調控電池活性。而這項成果不但已經在《自然》雜志刊發,更有望在2022年北京冬奧運會投入使用,成為驅動奧運電動汽車的核心技術之一。
 
  植入發熱體讓電池耐寒聽起來好像簡單,但實際上背后卻在安全性、材料的選擇、能量的轉化等問題上做出了非常大的投入。與此同時,這項技術的成功,也為電池發展全新的思路。在近200年中電池雖然不斷在發展、改變,但是其結構并沒有出現過太大的變化,而隨著材料等的不斷優化,電池在快充和高能量密度等方面,都遇到了瓶頸,如何突破也成為了如今電池儲能技術發展的重大難題。
 
  電能的儲備以及高轉化率是未來低碳發展的重要技術技術,因此發展電池也間接影響著科技以及社會的發展與進步。新技術讓電池更耐寒的背后,其實真正所展示的,是如今科研背景下,新技術發展讓生活更美好的內在。
(本文來源:儀器網,轉載請注明出處
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第7屆廣州國際生物技術大會暨展覽會

時間:2022.09.15~2022.09.17 地點:廣州·廣交會展館C區


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